c. AD 71 — c. 400

© English Heritage

Founded as a fortress in AD 71, Eboracum housed first the 9th and later the 6th Legion. It soon had a civilian population and boasted fine public and military buildings. Eboracum became one of the most important cities of Roman Britain and, after 211, it was the capital of the province of Britannia Inferior (Lower Britain).

(left) Remains of a tower on the south-west side of the fortress defences found in Lendal

(right) Roman wall with arches opening part of a building in the Colonia excavated in Micklegate

Excavations by the York Archaeological Trust have revealed the complex life of the fortress — with its barrack blocks, streets, bath houses and elaborate system of drains and sewers. In the civilian areas, public and private buildings have been discovered. These include town houses with mosaic floors, and possible bath houses and temples. We have also uncovered substantial river revetments which were built to accommodate Roman ships bringing in goods from the rest of the empire.